Apache HTTP Server

Apache HTTP Server
Design by Robert McCool
Developed by Apache Software Foundation
Initial release 1996 (11–12 years ago)
Latest release 2.2.8 / January 19, 2008 (2008-01-19), 70 days ago
Written in C
OS Cross-platform
Available in English
Genre Web server
License Apache License 2.0
Website http://httpd.apache.org/

Server HTTP Apache atau Server Web/WWW Apache adalah server web yang dapat dijalankan di banyak sistem operasi (Unix, BSD, Linux, Microsoft Windows dan Novell Netware serta platform lainnya) yang berguna untuk melayani dan memfungsikan situs web. Protokol yang digunakan untuk melayani fasilitas web/www ini mengunakan HTTP.

Apache memiliki fitur-fitur canggih seperti pesan kesalahan yang dapat dikonfigur, autentikasi berbasis basis data dan lain-lain. Apache juga didukung oleh sejumlah antarmuka pengguna berbasis grafik (GUI) yang memungkinkan penanganan server menjadi mudah.

Apache merupakan perangkat lunak sumber terbuka dikembangkan oleh komunitas terbuka yang terdiri dari pengembang-pengembang dibawah naungan Apache Software Foundation.

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Sejarah

Pada awal mulanya, Apache merupakan perangkat lunak sumber terbuka yang menjadi alternatif dari server web Netscape (sekarang dikenal sebagai Sun Java System Web Server). Sejak April 1996 Apache menjadi server web terpopuler di internet. Pada Mei 1999, Apache digunakan di 57% dari semua web server di dunia. Pada November 2005 persentase ini naik menjadi 71%. (sumber: Netcraft Web Server Survey, November 2005).

Asal mula nama Apache berasal ketika sebuah server web populer yang dikembangkan pada awal 1995 yang bernama NCSA HTTPd 1.3 memiliki sejumlah perubahan besar terhadap kode sumbernya (patch). Saking banyaknya patch pada perangkat lunak tersebut sehingga disebut sebuah server yang memiliki banyak patch (“a patchy” server). Tetapi pada halaman FAQ situs web resminya, disebutkan bahwa “Apache” dipilih untuk menghormati suku asli Indian Amerika Apache (Indé), yang dikenal karena keahlian dan strategi perangnya. Versi 2 dari Apache ditulis dari awal tanpa mengandung kode sumber dari NCSA.

Penggunaan

Apache adalah komponen server web dari paket perangkat lunak LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Perl/bahasa pemrograman Python).

Kompetitor

Menurut statistik dari Netcraft, Apache merupakan server web yang paling banyak digunakan di dunia per 2005. Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) merupakan kompetitor utama Apache, diikuti oleh Sun Java Web Server dari Sun Microsystem.

Features

Apache supports a variety of features, many implemented as compiled modules which extend the core functionality. These can range from server-side programming language support to authentication schemes. Some common language interfaces support mod_perl, mod_python, Tcl, and PHP. Popular authentication modules include mod_access, mod_auth, and mod_digest. A sample of other features include SSL and TLS support (mod_ssl), a proxy module, a useful URL rewriter (also known as a rewrite engine, implemented under mod_rewrite), custom log files (mod_log_config), and filtering support (mod_include and mod_ext_filter).

Popular compression methods on Apache include the external extension module, mod_gzip, implemented to help with reduction of the size (weight) of web pages served over HTTP. Apache logs can be analyzed through a web browser using free scripts such as AWStats/W3Perl or Visitors.

Virtual hosting allows one Apache installation to serve many different actual websites. For example, one machine, with one Apache installation could simultaneously serve http://www.example.com, http://www.test.com, test47.test-server.test.com, etc.

Apache features configurable error messages, DBMS-based authentication databases, and content negotiation. It is also supported by several graphical user interfaces (GUIs) which permit easier, more intuitive configuration of the server.

Usage

Apache is primarily used to serve both static content and dynamic Web pages on the World Wide Web. Many web applications are designed expecting the environment and features that Apache provides.

Apache is the web server component of the popular LAMP web server application stack, alongside MySQL, and the PHP/Perl/Python programming languages.

Apache is redistributed as part of various proprietary software packages including the Oracle Database or the IBM WebSphere application server. Mac OS X integrates Apache as its built-in web server and as support for its WebObjects application server. It is also supported in some way by Borland in the Kylix and Delphi development tools. Apache is included with Novell NetWare 6.5, where it is the default web server.

Apache is used for many other tasks where content needs to be made available in a secure and reliable way. One example is sharing files from a personal computer over the Internet. A user who has Apache installed on their desktop can put arbitrary files in the Apache’s document root which can then be shared.

Programmers developing web applications often use a locally installed version of Apache in order to preview and test code as it is being developed.

Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) is the main competitor to Apache, trailed by Sun Microsystems’ Sun Java System Web Server and a host of other applications such as Zeus Web Server. Some of the biggest web sites in the world are run using Apache. Google’s search engine front end is based on a modified version of Apache, named Google Web Server (GWS). Wikimedia projects, including Wikipedia are also run on Apache servers.

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Grafik Permintaan Masyarakat terhadap Server Apache
Apache LicenseThe software license under which software from the Apache Foundation is distributed is a distinctive part of the Apache HTTP Server’s history and presence in the open source software community. The Apache License allows for the distribution of both open and closed source derivations of the source code.

The Free Software Foundation does not consider the Apache License to be compatible with version 2 of the GNU General Public License (GPL) in that software licensed under the Apache License cannot be integrated with software that is distributed under the GPL:

This is a free software license but it is incompatible with the GPL. The Apache Software License is incompatible with the GPL because it has a specific requirement that is not in the GPL: it has certain patent termination cases that the GPL does not require. We don’t think those patent termination cases are inherently a bad idea, but nonetheless they are incompatible with the GNU GPL.
—http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/license-list.html

However, version 3 of the GPL includes a provision (Section 7e) which allows it to be compatible with licenses that have patent retaliation clauses, including the Apache License.

The name Apache is a registered trademark and may only be used with the trademark holder’s express permission.

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Diagram Kerja Server Apache

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